It may be described as treating actions as abstract objects, putting value the nature of human values pdf them. What makes an action valuable may in turn depend on the ethic values of the objects it increases, decreases or alters. Values can be defined as broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of actions or outcomes. As such, values reflect a person’s sense of right and wrong or what “ought” to be.
Equal rights for all”, “Excellence deserves admiration”, and “People should be treated with respect and dignity” are representatives of values. However, goodness has many other meanings and may be regarded as more ambiguous. Personal values exist in relation to cultural values, either in agreement with or divergence from prevailing norms. A culture is a social system that shares a set of common values, in which such values permit social expectations and collective understandings of the good, beautiful and constructive. Without normative personal values, there would be no cultural reference against which to measure the virtue of individual values and so cultural identity would disintegrate. Personal values provide an internal reference for what is good, beneficial, important, useful, beautiful, desirable and constructive. Values may help common human problems for survival by comparative rankings of value, the results of which provide answers to questions of why people do what they do and in what order they choose to do them.
Over time the public expression of personal values that groups of people find important in their day-to-day lives, lay the foundations of law, custom and tradition. United States would not willingly elect an atheist as president, suggesting that believing in a God is a generally shared value. It encourages students to define their own values and to understand others’ values. While norms are standards, patterns, rules and guides of expected behavior, values are abstract concepts of what is important and worthwhile. Different cultures reflect values differently and to different levels of emphasis. Over the last three decades, traditional-age college students have shown an increased interest in personal well-being and a decreased interest in the welfare of others. Values seemed to have changed, affecting the beliefs, and attitudes of the students.
Members take part in a culture even if each member’s personal values do not entirely agree with some of the normative values sanctioned in that culture. For example, imprisonment can result from conflict with social norms that the state has established as law. Nonetheless, in warlike economic competition, differing views may contradict each other, particularly in the field of culture. Thus audiences in Europe may regard a movie as an artistic creation and grant it benefits from special treatment, while audiences in the United States may see it as mere entertainment, whatever its artistic merits. Consequently, cultural interventionist policies can find themselves opposed to the Anglo-Saxon liberal position, causing failures in international negotiations.
Values are generally received through cultural means, especially transmission from parents to children. Parents in different cultures have different values. Many such cultures begin teaching babies to use sharp tools, including knives, before their first birthdays. Italian parents value social and emotional abilities and having an even temperament. Spanish parents want their children to be sociable.
Swedish parents value security and happiness. Dutch parents value independence, long attention spans, and predictable schedules. American parents are unusual for strongly valuing intellectual ability, especially in a narrow “book learning” sense. Luos of Kenya value education and pride which they call “nyadhi”. But these are no more than expressions and can never be facts, resulting from a tendency of the mind and not the heart or the will”. An intrinsically valuable thing is worth for itself, not as a means to something else. An object may be both a mean and end-in-itself.
Intrinsic and instrumental goods are not mutually exclusive categories. Some objects are both good in themselves, and also good for getting other objects that are good. Understanding science” may be such a good, being both worthwhile in and of itself, and as a means of achieving other goods. It should not be confused with the amount of value per object, although the latter may vary too, e.